Tuesday, 14 March 2023

Hardwired control unit (HCU)

Hardwired Control Unit(HCU)

It is one of the approach used for the control unit design. In the hardwired control, the control units use fixed logic circuit to interpret the instructions and generate the control signals from them. Figure shows the typical Hardwired control unit (HCU).
Here, the fixed logic circuit block includes combinational circuit that generates the required control O/P for decoding and encoding functions by separating the decoding and encoding functions.

 Various Methods to Design Hardwired Control Unit: The methods for designing the hardwired control units are using the gates, flip-flops, decoders, encoders and
other digital circuit.

Hardwired Control Unit (HCU)  by using the Decoder: the The use of a decoder can be used to build a Hardwired Control Unit (HCU). The decoder is a combinational circuit that outputs a series of control signals after receiving an instruction code as input. The numerous processes that the CPU must carry out in order to carry out the instruction are represented by the control signals produced by the decoder.

Each of the fields in the instruction code typically designates a certain operation or parameter. The first field in a common instruction code format for a computer's CPU, for instance, might specify the operation to be carried out, such as addition or subtraction, while the second field might indicate where the operands are located in memory or registers.

Each field of the instruction code is decoded separately to produce the control signals using a decoder. For each potential value of the field, the decoder creates a distinct output signal using the input code. The final set of control signals required to carry out the instruction are created by combining the output signals from each field decoder.

Consider, for example, a straightforward instruction code structure with the fields opcode and register address. The register address field defines the location of the operand in a register, while the opcode field describes the action to be carried out. Assume there are eight possible register addresses in addition to the four possible opcodes (00, 01, 10, and 11): 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, and 110.

Wednesday, 1 March 2023

Intuitive decision making model || decision making || decision making model

Intuitive Decision Model

Rather than logical reasoning, the intuitive decision model uses feelings and instinct to make decisions. Often, team leaders or managers use this model to make quick decisions when they don't have a lot of time for research or planning. The process of an intuitive decision is less structured and may use previous knowledge of similar goals or obstacles to determine a useful solution. Consider the following steps to help you use the intuitive decision- making model:

(1) Define Your Goal or Obstacle: Even with little time, it's important to define your goal or obstacle clearly, especially if you're making a decision without your team. This can help you explain the decision and its effects later.

(2) Identify Similar Goals or Obstacles: Brainstorm similar goals or obstacles you've encountered before and how you solved them. Use this information as a basis for creating your own solution.

(3) Recognize Possible Biases: Recognizing your biase is especially important when you don't have input from your team. Consider how your decision may affect yourself, your team and your company as you think of potential solutions.

(4) Determine a Usable Solution: Determine the best solution using your prior experience and the values of your company. An ideal solution helps your company achieve its goals or overcome an obstacle while also benefitting your team and other employees.

(5) Finalize your Decision and take Action: After choosing a usable solution, you can alert your company and team of your decision. If you have to make the decision quickly, you may have to put it into action without discussing with your team.

Thursday, 23 February 2023

What are the principles of scientific Management by Taylor?

Principles of Scientific Management by Taylor

F.W. Taylor or Fredrick Winslow Taylor is also known as the 'father of scientific management' proved with his practical theories that a scientific method can be implemented to management. Taylor gave much concentration on the supervisory level of management and performance of managers and workers at an operational level. Let's discuss in detail the five (5) principles of management by F.W Taylor.

(1) Science, not the Rule of Thumb: This rule focuses on increasing the efficiency of an organisation through scientific analysis of work and not with the 'Rule of Thumb' method. Taylor believed that even a small activity like loading paper sheets into boxcars can be planned scientifically. This will save time and also human energy. This decision should be based on scientific analysis and cause and effect relationships rather than 'Rule of Thumb' where the decision is taken according to the manager's personal judgement.

(2) Harmony, Not Discord: Taylor indicated and believed that the relationship between the workers and management should be cordial and complete harmony. Difference between the two will never be beneficial to either side. Management and workers should acknowledge and understand each other's importance. Taylor also suggested the mental revolution for both management and workers to achieve total harmony.

(3) Mental Revolution: This technique involves a shift of attitude of management and workers towards each other. Both should understand the value of each other and work with full participation and cooperation. The aim of both should be to improve and boost the profits of the organisation. Mental Revolution demands a complete change in the outlook of both the workers and management; both should have a sense of togetherness.

(4) Cooperation, not Individualism: It is similar to 'Harmony, not discord' and believes in mutual collaboration between workers and the management. Managers and workers should have mutual cooperation & confidence and a sense of goodwill. The main purpose is to substitute internal competition with cooperation.

(5) Development of Every Person to his Greatest Efficiency: The effectiveness of a company also relies on the abilities and skills of its employees. Thus, implementing training, learning best practices and technology, is the scientific approach to brush up the employee skill. To assure that the training is given to the right employee, the right steps should be taken at the time of selection and recruiting candidates based on a scientific selection.

These five (5) principles of scientific management process involved experiments, observation, analysis, and inference and were applied to create a cause and effect relationship.

Sunday, 19 February 2023

Program counter and stack pointer || stack pointer

Program Counter: A program counter is a register in a computer processor that contains the address (location) of the instruction being executed at the current time. As each instruction gets fetched, the program counter increases its stored value by 1. After each instruction is fetched, the program counter points to the next instruction in the sequence. When the computer restarts or is reset, the program counter normally reverts to 0.

In computing, a program is a specific set of ordered operations for a computer to perform. An instruction is an order given to a computer processor by a program. Within a computer, an address is a specific location in memory or storage. A register is one of a small set of data holding places that the processor uses.

Some engineers refer to a program counter as an instruction address register or an address pointer. 

Stack Pointer: A stack pointer is a small register that stores the address of the last program request in a stack. A stack is a specialized buffer which stores data from the top down. As new requests come in, they "push down" the older ones. The most recently entered request always resides at the top of the stack and the program always takes requests from the top.

A stack (also called a pushdown stack) operates in a last-in/first-out sense. When a new data item is entered or "pushed" onto the top of a stack, the stack pointer increments to the next physical memory address, and the new item is copied to that address. When a data item is "pulled" or "popped" from the top. of a stack, the item is copied from the address of the stack pointer, and the stack pointer decrements to the next available item at the top of the stack.

Wednesday, 15 February 2023

Application of computer in Degital would || Application of computer

In today's world, the computers are widely used by all to solve complex, scientific, business administrative and day to day problems. They have played a major role in automating many industrial and business domains. They make people life easier and comfortable. Anything that the computers do is just as the result of human instructions. They execute the instructions using the hardware as well as software, no matter whether they are correct or wrong.

The use of computer saves a lot of time and it makes all the governmental and business services available at one's hand reach. The main advantages of using computers are:

(1) High processing speed
(2) High backup storage 
(3) Parallel processing
(4) User friendliness
(5) Sharing of resources
(6) Affordable cost
(7) Reduction in man power and
(8) High accuracy

Further, the information systems are deployed in almost all the industries. Information systems such as management information system, Decision support system effectively utilize the database storage and retrieval process. They provide sophisticated user interface so that any naïve employee can use it with minimum training. Also, preparation of reports is easy and time saving in these systems. Therefore, they are useful to the managers and high level of executives of any industries.

The advent of internet and World Wide Web (www) in the 90s, has changed our lives tremendously and it helps us to connect with the other part of the world. As a result, all the government and business organisation invariably own their web portal for promoting their business. As a result, the information pertaining to the organizations are showcased effectively to their stakeholders.

With the use of big data analytics it is possible to extract the potential knowledge from the database and to predict the future. The advent of cloud computing technology allows us to share the resources at lower cost.

Sunday, 12 February 2023

Review object oriented programming concepts || object oriented programming || OOPs


When Thermos Flask was invented, it was labeled as one of the greatest inventions in the sense that how it remembers to keep hot things hot and cold things cold. The same analogy holds true for object-oriented programming (OOP). OOP is the most dramatic innovation in software development and some of its features draw parallels to that of Thermos Flask.

The primary objective of OOP is to provide clearer, reliable, and easily maintainable approach to program design. OOP involves concepts that are new to programmers of traditional programming languages, also known as procedural languages, imperative languages or problem oriented languages, such as Pascal, C, FORTRAN, etc. These concepts, such as data abstraction, encapsulation, data hiding, inheritance, overloading and polymorphism, lie at the heart of object-oriented programming. It is very important to understand that object-oriented programming is not primarily concerned with the details of the program operation; instead it deals with the overall organization of the program.

Object-oriented programming is not just another way of programming; it is a
new way of organizing programs.
In this chapter, before covering the concepts of object-oriented programming, let us have a look at procedural programming and object-oriented programming and their relative merits and demerits. The major motivation for the invention of new programming approach, object-oriented programming, was to remove the flaws of procedural programming approach. Object-oriented programming treats the data as a most critical element in the program design and does not allow it be scattered around the program. It ties the data and the functions that operate on it and protects it from the other functions.

Object-oriented programming allows decomposition of a problem into a number of entities called objects and then builds data and functions around these objects.

The typical of an object-oriented program and the relationship between the data and
Function . The data of an object can only be accessed by functions associated with it. However, function of one object can access the function of another object. The communications among functions of different objects is called messaging.

Friday, 3 February 2023

Meaning of Management || What is Management


(Management is an essential part of any goal oriented activity. Every organisation requires planning of activities, organisation of resources, establishment of communication system, leading and motivation of people, and control of operations for the realisation of its goals or objectives) This chapter is modest attempt to present the meaning, objectives and basic nature of management and to describe the roles of managers at different levels of management in the organisation.


(The term 'management' has been defined differently by different authors. Traditional authors define it as an art of getting things done whereas modern authors define it as a process of accomplishing certain objectives through the utilisation of human and other resources.

Modern Definition

Modern management writers consider management much more than getting things done through others. Managing involves creating a conducive environment in the organisation whereby individuals are motivated to work efficiently for the achievement of organisational objectives. To quote Harold Koontz and Cyril O'Donnell, "Management is the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals, working in groups, can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals."

Management is the process of getting things done with the aim of achieving organisational objectives effectively and efficiently. The basic elements of this definition are discussed below:

(i) Process. The term process in the definition means the primary functions or activities that management performs to get things done. These functions are planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling which we will discuss later in the chapter.

(ii) Effectiveness. Being effective or doing work effectively means finishing the given task. Effectiveness in management is concerned with doing the right things completing activities and achieving goals. In other words, it is concerned with the end result.

(iii) Efficiency. It means optimum utilisation of resources in performing the given task. It signifies the relationship between inputs and outputs. Efficiency would be greater if less inputs are used to produce the required amount of goods or if more goods are produced with the given input.

(iv) Organisational Objectives. The modern concept of management insists that all the activities of managers must be directed towards the achievement of organisational goals these goals should be considered as common goals of all employees.

Effectiveness vs. Efficiency. These two terms are different but they are interrelated. For management, it is important to be both effective and efficient. Effectiveness and efficiency are two sides of the same coin. But these two aspects need to be balance and management at times, has to compromise with efficiency. For example, it is easier to be effective and ignore efficiency, i.e., complete the given task but at a high cost. Suppose, a company has two units to produce colour TVs and each has a target of 4,000 units per month. If the first unit achieves this target at the cost Rs. 6,000 per unit as compared to the second unit which achieves the target at the cost of Rs. 6,500 per unit, the first unit would be considered more efficient.